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Drugs, Standards and the Practices of Globalization - 9-10 décembre 2010

Paris, December 9th-10th-11th 2010

Drugs, Standards and the Practices of Globalization

An international conference of the European Science Foundation Program DRUGS organized by Cermes3 (Centre de Recherches Médecine, Sciences, Santé et Société) with the support of Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

To be held in Paris on December 9th-10th-11th 2010
Reid Hall 4, rue de Chevreuse 75006 PARIS - Tel 01 43 20 33 07

Information and inscription
Maurice Cassier (Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.)
Jean-Paul Gaudillière (Cette adresse e-mail est protégée contre les robots spammeurs. Vous devez activer le JavaScript pour la visualiser.)

Globalization has become a major issue in studies of contemporary science and medicine. The range of problems investigated is vast including the surveillance of new epidemics, the development of health markets crossing national and continental boundaries, the internationalization of medical research, the rising economic power of countries like Brazil, China or India and their mounting role in the production of therapeutic agents, the conflicts about biological resources and drug intellectual property, or the renewed interests in traditional systems of medicine and local knowledge. Drugs, their invention, making and uses, have a central role in the new globalization of diseases and remedies. Global standardization has therefore emerged as a marker and occasional topic of analysis, for instance with investigation about the delocalization of clinical trials, the relationship between national regulation agencies, or the standardization activities of the World Health Organization.

However most studies tend to forget that globalization in general, international drug management and standardization in particular are not new processes and practices. The present globalization is just the last phase in a long history. Global drug making and standardization may for instance be traced back to the late 19th century when the rapid industrialization of pharmaceuticals met what the so-called second globalization with its cortege of world fairs, international conferences, new trade routes, capital export and colonization.

The aim of this workshop is to advance the discussion of both these historical routes and recent transformation in the global life of drugs and standards. The aim is however not to simply enlarge the frame of analysis, include international activities in the landscape, and reconsider the national boundaries of standardization. It is rather to address the complex interplay between standardization and the resistance to it, between local and global levels of production, regulation, and use. The circulation of knowledge and practices associated with the definition of good, efficient, valuable, usable, and profitable therapeutic agents did not merely made "things" available but changed them. The global government of drugs must not be equated with the creation of international boards or the appropriation of colonial raw materials but must be looked at various levels. Within the perspective of this workshop, special attention will be paid to the relations the essential practices of displacement and alignment have maintained, focusing on the tools involved in the making of global drugs, i.e. instruments, technical protocols as well as institutional arrangements.

The workshop will accordingly discuss issues like (the list is indicative and not exhaustive) : a) the activities and trajectory of international standardization and/or regulatory bodies like the Ligue of Nations, the World Health Oroganization or the World Intellectual Property Organization ; b) the history and contemporary transformation of pharmacopoeia ; c) the various ways in which the notion of basic health needs has been addressed and turned into operations, for instance with research programs or lists of "essential drugs" ; d) the making or unmaking of drugs targeting diseases like malaria or tuberculosis, which were once diseases of the North to become (neglected) diseases of developed countries.

Given the need for more systematic comparison of past and present globalization, one specific feature of this meeting will be to include historians as well as specialists in the various social sciences interested in the contemporary world of global drugs.

Provisional program Thursday, December 9th, 2010

- 9h-9h15
Maurice Cassier and Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Wellcoming remarks

- 9h15-9h30
Arianna Ciula, Presentation of ESF

Session 1 - Drugs, globalization and the World Health Organization

- 9h30-10h
Axel Hüntelmann, The Globalization of evaluation. Biological standardization within the German Institute for experimental therapy and the Standardization committee of the Hygiene Organization of the Ligue of Nations

- 10h-10h30
Christoph Gradmann, Standardising Resistance. WHO and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing in the 1960s

- 10h30-11h
Michael Bresalier, Virus Strains and Vaccine Standards : Coordinating the World Health Organization's Influenza Programme through the Developing Chick Egg, 1947-1957

- 11h-11h15
Pause

- 11h15-11h45
Jeremy Greene, Standardizing pharmaceutical promotion at WHO, 1962-1988

- 11h45-12h15
German Velasquez, The acces to drugs between the new rules of international trade and the right to health

- 12h15-13h15
Comments and discussion : Elizabeth Fee

Session 2 - Globalizing industrial products : pharmaceutical firms and their strategies

- 14h30-15h
Christian Bonah, 'In the service of humanity' : Film advertisement of German phamaceuticals for a global market, 1930-1960

- 15h-15h30
Lea Haller, Local practices and global networks : Ciba's search for Strophantus in West Africa

- 15h30-15h45
Pause

- 15h45-16h15
Tobias Cramer, Bayer's "wonder drug" in Latin America. Marketing analgesics in the inter-war period

- 16h15-16h45
Miloud Kadar, Global vaccine market : the role of emerging manufacturers

- 16h45-17h45
Comments and discussion : Viviane Quirke

Friday, December 10th, 2010

Session 3. Global diseases, global remedies

9h30-10h
Susan Craddock, The production and distribution challenges of new tuberculosis drugs

- 10h-10h30
Jean-Hervé Bradol, Resistant malaria treated by mediation from Asia to Africa

- 10h30-10h45
Pause

- 10h45-11h
Guillaume Lachenal, The social lives of Pentamidine. Hypes, hopes, amnesia and neglect from colonial medicine to global health

- 11h-11h30
Floriane Blanc, From Melarsoprol to NECT. Innovation, standardization and the treatment of African Human Trypanosomiase

- 11h30-12h30
Comments and discussion : Alice Desclaux (to be confirmed)

Session 4. Regulation and international standards for drugs

- 14h-14h30
Adriana Petryna, Risk and the competitive logic of global clinical trials

- 14h30-15h
Boris Hauray, European integration and the internationalisation of drug regulation.

- 15h-15h30
Loes Knaapen, International standardization of local guideline development

- 15h30-15h45
Pause

- 15h45-16h15
Sophie Chauveau, The limits of global standards in the blood industry

- 16h15-16h45
Christopher Lantenois, WHO prequalification : challenges and impacts on the suppliers of ARVs

- 16h45-17h45
Comments and discussion : Volker Hess

Saturday, December 11th, 2010

- 9h30-12h
Roundtable and general discussion with Iris Borowy, Pratik Chakrabarty, Benjamin Coriat, and Cori Hayden