||This article aims to review critical issues in the global health of transgender and gender diverse people with a particular focus on the Italian context. Trans identities and
experiences have long been pathologized. Pathologization is a form of structural stigma. In many countries, including Italy, having a trans-related mental health diagnosis is still a requisite for having one gender and name changed in identity documents and for accessing gender-affirming treatments, even though important changes are taking place, with the WHO’s International Classification of Diseases - ICD11 - erasing trans-related diagnosis from the “Mental and behavioral disorders” and substituting them with the category of gender incongruence in the new chapter “Conditions related to sexual health”. Trans people face social and familial rejection, as well as discrimination in housing, employment, education, and social services. Those intersecting forms of oppression and discrimination have a negative effect on their health. Trans people often experience overt discrimination and hostility in healthcare settings and face structural and interpersonal barriers in the access to general and gender-affirming healthcare. While trans people are as concerned as their cisgender counterparts by the need for sexual and reproductive health services, they face multiple barriers in accessing them. More research conducted as part of a meaningful collaboration with community stakeholders and organizations is needed on important areas of trans people’s general health, as well as on the optimal content and models of service provision.